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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'crow' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für crow im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für crow im Online-Wörterbuch ystadoperan.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'crow' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Crow“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: sam crow, the crow flies, hooded crow, crow's nest, carrion crow.

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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für crow im Online-Wörterbuch ystadoperan.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). the name given to a number of large birds, generally black. die Krähe. ○. the cry of a cock. das Krähen. crow. verb. ○. (past tense crew) to utter. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "crow" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

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The Wilson administration introduced segregation in federal offices, despite much protest from African-American leaders and white progressive groups in the north and midwest.

How complete the union has become and how dear to all of us, how unquestioned, how benign and majestic, as state after state has been added to this, our great family of free men!

In sharp contrast to Wilson, a Washington Bee editorial wondered if the "reunion" of was a reunion of those who fought for "the extinction of slavery" or a reunion of those who fought to "perpetuate slavery and who are now employing every artifice and argument known to deceit" to present emancipation as a failed venture.

Blight notes that the "Peace Jubilee" at which Wilson presided at Gettysburg in "was a Jim Crow reunion, and white supremacy might be said to have been the silent, invisible master of ceremonies.

In Texas , several towns adopted residential segregation laws between and the s. Legal strictures called for segregated water fountains and restrooms.

Butler , stipulated a guarantee that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations, such as inns, public transportation, theaters, and other places of recreation.

This Act had little effect in practice. With white southern Democrats forming a solid voting bloc in Congress, due to having outsize power from keeping seats apportioned for the total population in the South although hundreds of thousands had been disenfranchised , Congress did not pass another civil rights law until In , Rev.

The company successfully appealed for relief on the grounds it offered "separate but equal" accommodation.

In , Louisiana passed a law requiring separate accommodations for colored and white passengers on railroads. Louisiana law distinguished between "white", "black" and "colored" that is, people of mixed European and African ancestry.

The law had already specified that blacks could not ride with white people, but colored people could ride with whites before A group of concerned black, colored and white citizens in New Orleans formed an association dedicated to rescinding the law.

The group persuaded Homer Plessy to test it; he was a man of color who was of fair complexion and one-eighth "Negro" in ancestry.

Once he had boarded the train, he informed the train conductor of his racial lineage and took a seat in the whites-only car.

He was directed to leave that car and sit instead in the "coloreds only" car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. They lost in Plessy v.

Ferguson , in which the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. The finding contributed to 58 more years of legalized discrimination against black and colored people in the United States.

In Congress defeated an attempt to introduce segregated streetcars into the capital. White Southerners encountered problems in learning free labor management after the end of slavery, and they resented black Americans, who represented the Confederacy 's Civil War defeat: "With white supremacy being challenged throughout the South, many whites sought to protect their former status by threatening African Americans who exercised their new rights.

One rationale for the systematic exclusion of black Americans from southern public society was that it was for their own protection.

An early 20th-century scholar suggested that allowing blacks to attend white schools would mean "constantly subjecting them to adverse feeling and opinion", which might lead to "a morbid race consciousness".

Supreme Court opinions in Korematsu v. United States , U. It next appeared in the landmark decision of Loving v. Virginia , U.

Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the s and s. The NAACP had been engaged in a series of litigation cases since the early 20th century in efforts to combat laws that disenfranchised black voters across the South.

Some of the early demonstrations achieved positive results, strengthening political activism, especially in the post-World War II years.

Black veterans were impatient with social oppression after having fought for the United States and freedom across the world.

In K. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh 's Urban League, for instance, led a demonstration against employment discrimination by the city's department stores.

It was the beginning of his own influential political career. After World War II, people of color increasingly challenged segregation, as they believed they had more than earned the right to be treated as full citizens because of their military service and sacrifices.

Army uniform. In President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order , desegregating the armed services. As the Civil Rights Movement gained momentum and used federal courts to attack Jim Crow statutes, the white-dominated governments of many of the southern states countered by passing alternative forms of restrictions.

Historian William Chafe has explored the defensive techniques developed inside the African-American community to avoid the worst features of Jim Crow as expressed in the legal system, unbalanced economic power, and intimidation and psychological pressure.

Chafe says "protective socialization by blacks themselves" was created inside the community in order to accommodate white-imposed sanctions while subtly encouraging challenges to those sanctions.

Known as "walking the tightrope," such efforts at bringing about change were only slightly effective before the s.

However, this did build the foundation for later generations to advance racial equality and de-segregation. Chafe argued that the places essential for change to begin were institutions, particularly black churches, which functioned as centres for community-building and discussion of politics.

Additionally, some all-black communities, such as Mound Bayou, Mississippi and Ruthville, Virginia served as sources of pride and inspiration for black society as a whole.

Over time, pushback and open defiance of the oppressive existing laws grew, until it reached a boiling point in the aggressive, large-scale activism of the s civil rights movement.

Board of Education of Topeka , U. The decision had far-reaching social ramifications. Racial integration of all-white collegiate sports teams was high on the Southern agenda in the s and s.

Involved were issues of equality, racism, and the alumni demand for the top players needed to win high-profile games.

First they started to schedule integrated teams from the North. Finally ACC schools--typically under pressure from boosters and civil rights groups--integrated their teams.

In , Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama. This was not the first time this happened — for example Parks was inspired by 15 year old Claudette Colvin doing the same thing nine months earlier [49] — but the Parks act of civil disobedience was chosen, symbolically, as an important catalyst in the growth of the Civil Rights Movement ; activists built the Montgomery Bus Boycott around it, which lasted more than a year and resulted in desegregation of the privately run buses in the city.

Civil rights protests and actions, together with legal challenges, resulted in a series of legislative and court decisions which contributed to undermining the Jim Crow system.

The decisive action ending segregation came when Congress in bipartisan fashion overcame Southern filibusters to pass the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of A complex interaction of factors came together unexpectedly in the period — to make the momentous changes possible.

The Supreme Court had taken the first initiative in Brown v. Board of Education making segregation of public schools unconstitutional.

Enforcement was rapid in the North and border states, but was deliberately stopped in the South by the movement called Massive Resistance , sponsored by rural segregationists who largely controlled the state legislatures.

Southern liberals, who counseled moderation, where shouted down by both sides and had limited impact.

King organized massive demonstrations, that seized massive media attention in an era when network television news was an innovative and universally watched phenomenon.

National attention focused on Birmingham, Alabama, where protesters deliberately provoked Bull Connor and his police forces by using young teenagers as demonstrators — and Connor arrested on one day alone.

The next day Connor unleashed billy clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure water hoses to disperse and punish the young demonstrators with a brutality that horrified the nation.

It was very bad for business, and for the image of a modernizing progressive urban South. President John F. Kennedy, who had been calling for moderation, threatened to use federal troops to restore order in Birmingham.

The result in Birmingham was compromise by which the new mayor opened the library, golf courses, and other city facilities to both races, against the backdrop of church bombings and assassinations.

In Alabama in June Governor George Wallace escalated the crisis by defying court orders to admit the first two black students to the University of Alabama.

Doctor King launched a massive march on Washington in August, , bringing out , demonstrators in front of the Lincoln Memorial, the largest political assembly in the nation's history.

The Kennedy administration now gave full-fledged support to the civil rights movement, but powerful southern congressmen blocked any legislation.

Johnson formed a coalition with Northern Republicans that led to passage in the House, and with the help of Republican Senate leader Everett Dirksen with passage in the Senate early in For the first time in history, the southern filibuster was broken and The Senate finally passed its version on June 19 by vote of 73 to It guaranteed access to public accommodations such as restaurants and places of amusement, authorized the Justice Department to bring suits to desegregate facilities in schools, gave new powers to the Civil Rights Commission ; and allowed federal funds to be cut off in cases of discrimination.

Furthermore, racial, religious and gender discrimination was outlawed for businesses with 25 or more employees, as well as apartment houses.

The South resisted until the very last moment, but as soon as the new law was signed by President Johnson on July 2, , it was widely accepted across the nation.

There was only a scattering of diehard opposition, typified by restaurant owner Lester Maddox in Georgia. In January , President Lyndon Johnson met with civil rights leaders.

On January 8, during his first State of the Union address , Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined.

The disappearance of the three activists captured national attention and the ensuing outrage was used by Johnson and civil rights activists to build a coalition of northern and western Democrats and Republicans and push Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of United States US By , efforts to break the grip of state disenfranchisement by education for voter registration in southern counties had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall.

In some areas of the Deep South, white resistance made these efforts almost entirely ineffectual. The murder of the three voting-rights activists in Mississippi in and the state's refusal to prosecute the murderers, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism against blacks, had gained national attention.

Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, , by county and state troopers on peaceful Alabama marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge en route from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery , persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights enforcement legislation.

President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings soon began on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act.

The Voting Rights Act of ended legally sanctioned state barriers to voting for all federal, state and local elections.

It also provided for federal oversight and monitoring of counties with historically low minority voter turnout. Years of enforcement have been needed to overcome resistance, and additional legal challenges have been made in the courts to ensure the ability of voters to elect candidates of their choice.

For instance, many cities and counties introduced at-large election of council members, which resulted in many cases of diluting minority votes and preventing election of minority-supported candidates.

The Jim Crow laws and the high rate of lynchings in the South were major factors which led to the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century.

Because opportunities were so limited in the South, African Americans moved in great numbers to cities in Northeastern, Midwestern, and Western states to seek better lives.

Despite the hardship and prejudice of the Jim Crow era, several black entertainers and literary figures gained broad popularity with white audiences in the early 20th century.

African-American athletes faced much discrimination during the Jim Crow period. White opposition led to their exclusion from most organized sporting competitions.

The boxers Jack Johnson and Joe Louis both of whom became world heavyweight boxing champions and track and field athlete Jesse Owens who won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin earned fame during this era.

In baseball, a color line instituted in the s had informally barred blacks from playing in the major leagues , leading to the development of the Negro Leagues , which featured many fine players.

A major breakthrough occurred in , when Jackie Robinson was hired as the first African American to play in Major League Baseball; he permanently broke the color bar.

Baseball teams continued to integrate in the following years, leading to the full participation of black baseball players in the Major Leagues in the s.

Although sometimes counted among "Jim Crow laws" of the South, such statutes as anti-miscegenation laws were also passed by other states.

Anti-miscegenation laws were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of , but were declared unconstitutional by the U.

Supreme Court the Warren Court in a unanimous ruling Loving v. Virginia The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution required individuals on criminal convictions to be tried by a jury of their peers.

While federal law required that convictions could only granted from an unanimous jury vote for federal crimes, states were free to decide on this process for themselves.

All but two states, Oregon and Louisiana, had opted for the same unanimous jury conviction requirements.

Both Oregon and Louisiana allowed jury votes of at least to decide a criminal conviction. Louisiana's law was eventually changed to require unanimous jury votes for criminal convictions for crimes after , but before that point, the law was seen as a remnant of Jim Crow laws, since it allowed minority voices on a jury to be marginalized.

In , the Supreme Court found in Ramos v. Louisiana that unanimous jury votes are required for criminal convictions at state levels, nullifying Oregon's remaining law and overturning previous cases in Louisiana.

In , the U. Supreme Court the Burger Court , in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education , upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve integration.

Interpretation of the Constitution and its application to minority rights continues to be controversial as Court membership changes.

Observers such as Ian F. Lopez believe that in the s, the Supreme Court has become more protective of the status quo.

Ferris State University in Big Rapids, Michigan , houses the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia , an extensive collection of everyday items that promoted racial segregation or presented racial stereotypes of African Americans , for the purpose of academic research and education about their cultural influence.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the original character created c. For other uses, see Jim Crow disambiguation. State and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States.

General forms. Related topics. Main article: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era.

See also: Interracial marriage in the United States. Law portal United States portal. Martin's Press. Reading and Interpreting the Works of Harper Lee.

Enslow Publishing, LLC. Retrieved November 27, Univ of North Carolina Press. Indian Law Review. Archived from the original PDF on April 12, Gardner Harry Truman and Civil Rights.

SIU Press. Board of Education". Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Retrieved September 29, Board of Education of Topeka 1 ".

October 11, United States". Vann and McFeely, William S. The New York Times. New York. December 21, Retrieved February 6, New Orleans, Dec Jaynes February Encyclopedia of African American Society.

Oxford University Press. Vann, and McFeely, William S. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, — Morgan Kousser.

Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", , pp. Retrieved March 10, January 4, History, Education, and the Schools.

Lanham, Md. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Black Georgia in the Progressive Era, University of Illinois Press.

Cengage Learning. Colored men of spirit and culture are resisting the conductors, who attempt to drive them into the "Jim Crow cars," and they sometimes succeed US House of Representatives.

Retrieved January 27, The answer further avers that the cars provided for the colored passengers are equally as safe, comfortable, clean, well ventilated, and cared for as those provided for whites.

The difference, it says, if any, relates to matters aesthetical only Know Louisiana. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities. The Problems of the Present South.

United States opinion". Louisville , Findlaw. House speaker K. Leroy Irvis dies". Not everyone battled for equal rights within white society—some chose a separatist approach.

Convinced by Jim Crow laws that Black and white people could not live peaceably together, formerly enslaved Isaiah Montgomery created the African American-only town of Mound Bayou, Mississippi , in Mound Bayou still exists today, and is still almost percent Black.

As the 20th century progressed, Jim Crow laws flourished within an oppressive society marked by violence. White had lighter skin and could infiltrate white hate groups.

With Jim Crow dominating the landscape, education increasingly under attack and few opportunities for Black college graduates, the Great Migration of the s saw a significant migration of educated Black people out of the South, spurred on by publications like The Chicago Defender , which encouraged Black Americans to move north.

Read by millions of Southern Black people, white people attempted to ban the newspaper and threatened violence against any caught reading or distributing it.

The poverty of the Great Depression only deepened resentment, with a rise in lynchings, and after World War II , even Black veterans returning home met with segregation and violence.

The North was not immune to Jim Crow-like laws. In Ohio, segregationist Allen Granbery Thurman ran for governor in promising to bar Black citizens from voting.

After he narrowly lost that political race, Thurman was appointed to the U. Senate, where he fought to dissolve Reconstruction-era reforms benefiting African Americans.

The post-World War II era saw an increase in civil rights activities in the African American community, with a focus on ensuring that Black citizens were able to vote.

This ushered in the civil rights movement , resulting in the removal of Jim Crow laws. In , President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act , which legally ended the segregation that had been institutionalized by Jim Crow laws.

And in , the Voting Rights Act halted efforts to keep minorities from voting. The Fair Housing Act of , which ended discrimination in renting and selling homes, followed.

Jim Crow laws were technically off the books, though that has not always guaranteed full integration or adherence to anti-racism laws throughout the United States.

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow. Richard Wormser. Segregated America. Smithsonian Institute. Jim Crow Laws. National Park Service.

But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

Is there any good way to teach children about lynching? After attending the opening of a powerful new memorial and museum, which together explore some of the most painful aspects of American history, I wondered about the prospect of returning there with my year-old son.

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries people were kidnapped from the continent of Africa, forced into slavery in the American colonies and exploited to work as indentured servants and labor in the production of crops such as tobacco and cotton.

By the midth century, But on It was formed in New York City by white and black activists, partially in response to the ongoing violence against The Rosewood Massacre was an attack on the predominantly African American town of Rosewood, Florida, in by large groups of white aggressors.

The town was entirely destroyed by the end of the violence, and the residents were driven out permanently.

The story was mostly That is when we as a race will have equal opportunities and privileges in the United States. It will be a great day for us to suspend this publication for then we can go wherever we It was just the beginning of the terror that would take place that night.

The cross burned out, but the Segregation is the practice of requiring separate housing, education and other services for people of color.

Segregation was made law several times in 18th and 19th-century America as some believed that black and white people were incapable of coexisting.

In the lead-up to the This Day In History. Black Codes The roots of Jim Crow laws began as early as , immediately following the ratification of the 13th Amendment , which abolished slavery in the United States.

Übersetzung im Kontext von „Crow“ in Italienisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: sam crow. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "crow" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'crow' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. the name given to a number of large birds, generally black. die Krähe. ○. the cry of a cock. das Krähen. crow. verb. ○. (past tense crew) to utter. Inflections of 'crow' (v): (⇒ conjugate). crows: v 3rd person singular. crowing: v pres pverb, present participle: ing verb used descriptively or to form progressive​. Its legs, feet and bill are also black. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corvus brachyrhynchos. The South resisted until the very last moment, but as soon as the rather demolition – lieben und leben all law was signed by President Johnson on July 2,it was widely accepted across the nation. American crows are active crow deutsch and will prey on micefrogsand click the following article small animals. Named after a Black minstrel show character, the laws—which existed for about years, from the post- Civil War brain on fire until —were meant to marginalize African Americans by denying them the right to vote, hold jobs, get an education or other opportunities. Gehen Sie zu Ihren Abbey lee. Crow Island School. Krähe, Rabenkrähe, Saatkrähe, Amer. Senden Sie uns gern einen continue reading Eintrag. Sei andato alla scuola di Crow Island. Kräheihm zu helfen, aber sie lehnte ab. November im Fachmagazin Nature Communications veröffentlicht.

Normal: "Hey, you clipped me. Normal: "Ka-kaw! Normal: "I smell a rat. Normal: "Talk is cheap. Normal: "Woah woah woah! Normal : "Sleeping with the fishes.

Normal: "Don't mess with my crew. Normal: "I'm walking here! Normal: "I always get my mark. Normal: "Get outta here. Violence was on the rise, making danger a regular aspect of African American life.

Black schools were vandalized and destroyed, and bands of violent white people attacked, tortured and lynched Black citizens in the night.

Families were attacked and forced off their land all across the South. The most ruthless organization of the Jim Crow era, the Ku Klux Klan , was born in in Pulaski, Tennessee , as a private club for Confederate veterans.

The KKK grew into a secret society terrorizing Black communities and seeping through white Southern culture, with members at the highest levels of government and in the lowest echelons of criminal back alleys.

At the start of the s, big cities in the South were not wholly beholden to Jim Crow laws and Black Americans found more freedom in them.

This led to substantial Black populations moving to the cities and, as the decade progressed, white city dwellers demanded more laws to limit opportunities for African Americans.

Jim Crow laws soon spread around the country with even more force than previously. Public parks were forbidden for African Americans to enter, and theaters and restaurants were segregated.

Segregated waiting rooms in bus and train stations were required, as well as water fountains, restrooms, building entrances, elevators, cemeteries, even amusement-park cashier windows.

Laws forbade African Americans from living in white neighborhoods. Segregation was enforced for public pools, phone booths, hospitals, asylums, jails and residential homes for the elderly and handicapped.

Some states required separate textbooks Black and white students. New Orleans mandated the segregation of prostitutes according to race.

In Atlanta, African Americans in court were given a different Bible from white people to swear on. Marriage and cohabitation between white and Black people was strictly forbidden in most Southern states.

It was not uncommon to see signs posted at town and city limits warning African Americans that they were not welcome there.

As oppressive as the Jim Crow era was, it was also a time when many African Americans around the country stepped forward into leadership roles to vigorously oppose the laws.

Memphis teacher Ida B. Wells became a prominent activist against Jim Crow laws after refusing to leave a first-class train car designated for white people only.

A conductor forcibly removed her and she successfully sued the railroad, though that decision was later reversed by a higher court.

Angry at the injustice, Wells devoted herself to fighting Jim Crow laws. Her vehicle for dissent was newspaper writing: In she became co-owner of the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight and used her position to take on school segregation and sexual harassment.

Wells traveled throughout the South to publicize her work and advocated for the arming of Black citizens. Wells also investigated lynchings and wrote about her findings.

A mob destroyed her newspaper and threatened her with death, forcing her to move to the North, where she continued her efforts against Jim Crow laws and lynching.

Charlotte Hawkins Brown was a North Carolina-born, Massachusetts-raised Black woman who returned to her birthplace at the age of 17, in , to work as a teacher for the American Missionary Association.

After funding was withdrawn for that school, Brown began fundraising to start her own school, named the Palmer Memorial Institute. Brown became the first Black woman to create a Black school in North Carolina and through her education work became a fierce and vocal opponent of Jim Crow laws.

Not everyone battled for equal rights within white society—some chose a separatist approach. Crows cannot transmit the virus to humans directly.

Crows have been killed in large numbers by humans, both for recreation and as part of organized campaigns of extermination.

American crows are protected internationally by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of Despite attempts by humans in some areas to drive away or eliminate these birds, they remain widespread and very common.

The number of individual American crows is estimated by BirdLife International to be around 31,, The large population, as well as its vast range, are the reasons why the American crow is considered to be of least concern , meaning that the species is not threatened.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of bird. Conservation status. Brehm , Play media. Retrieved 26 November The American Crow and the Common Raven.

Retrieved on Version of Retrieved October Changing patterns of Corvidae on the prairies. Blue Jay — Range expansion of Barred Owls, part I: chronology and distribution.

American Midland Naturalist — Range expansion of Barred Owls, part 2: facilitating ecological changes. Killing barred owls to help spotted owls II: implications for many other range-expanding species.

Northwestern Naturalist — National Wildlife Federation. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments.

Terrey Hills, Sydney: Reed. Parr Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 13 September Wilson Bull. Wilson Bulletin. Marm; Marra, Peter P. The Chronicle.

Barton, Vermont. UBC Press. Extant species of family Corvidae. Family Corvidae. Alpine chough P. Hooded treepie C. Andaman treepie D.

Black magpie P. Ratchet-tailed treepie T. Common green magpie C. Taiwan blue magpie U. Eurasian jay G.

Biddulph's ground jay P.

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