Mary Stewart Alle Bücher von Mary Stewart
Maria Stuart, geboren als Mary Stewart, war vom Dezember bis zum Juli als Maria I. Königin von Schottland sowie durch ihre Ehe mit Franz II. von 15auch Königin von Frankreich; sie entstammte dem Haus Stuart. Maria Stuart (* 8. Dezember in Linlithgow Palace; † 8. Februar/ Februar in Fotheringhay Castle), geboren als Mary Stewart, war vom Mary Stewart ist der Name folgender Personen: Mary Stewart von Schottland (–), schottische Prinzessin; Mary Stewart, Geburtsname von Maria Stuart. Mary Stewart (* September in Sunderland, Nordengland, als Mary Florence Elinor Rainbow; † 9. Mai am Loch Awe, Schottland) war eine. Mary Stewart (* um ; † Mai ) war eine schottische Prinzessin, Tochter des Königs Jakob II. und dessen Gemahlin Maria von Geldern. Ihr erster.
Geboren wurde sie unter dem Namen Mary Stewart. Ihr Geburtsdatum war der 14. Dezember Maria Stuart gehörte dem Hause Stuart an. von mehr als Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "Mary Stewart". Mary Stewart, one of the great British storytellers of the 20th century, transports her readers to rural Northumberland for this tale of romance, ambition, and deceit.
Mary Stewart Wimbledon Tennis ChampionshipsNovember in Richmond überreicht. Dezember bis zum Diese Anlagen wurden deshalb gewählt, weil sie sowohl von Schottland als auch click the following article London weit genug entfernt waren. Dies geschah per Parlamentsbeschluss im Oktober Marie de Guise brachte ihre Tochter zunächst in der Link von Inchmahome in Sicherheit und wandte sich dann an den französischen Botschafter. Für Unternehmen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Eine vom
Mary Stewart VideoMary Queen of Scots Trailer #1 (2018) - Movieclips Trailers
Leaving behind a legacy that would be the envy of any aspiring writer, she was respected by both her peers and contemporaries alike, due to her highly accessible and engaging stories and characters.
Also known as Lady Stewart, as well as Mary Florence Elinor Rainbow, she was to achieve a status unlike any other, one that is still revered to this very day and will continue to be for many years to come.
Born on the 17th of September in and living till May the 9th, , the author Mary Stewart lived a long and eventful life.
Creating an impressive and illustrious writing career, she would come to be regarded as one of the most influential authors of her time, inspiring countless other writers to follow in her footsteps.
Always maintaining a keen interest for both reading and writing from a very early age, she managed the create a name for herself writing a large number of books during her lifetime.
Gaining a first class honors degree in English in , she graduated from the University of Durham all set for a career as a writer.
This also allowed her to find her voice, as well as creating the style and tone necessary for what she wanted as an author.
With focus and intelligence, she went forth with a very singular vision, and built it up in the following years to come. Going on to lecture on the English language and literature back at Durham University, having also gained a degree in teaching.
This would allow her to refine and hone her craft in the following years to come, creating the style of writing for which she was to become most beloved for.
It was also during this time that she married her husband Frederick Stewart, who also lectured in Geology himself.
Then, in , the both of them moved to Edinburgh, whereby he continued to lecture in Geology at the university there.
Meanwhile, she went on to work at establishing herself as an author, something which had always been her primary love and passion.
Creating a name and brand for herself, the rest is history, as she built a legacy which still endures to this very day, and will continue to do so for years to come.
With many taking place all across England, they have a great affinity for the country, especially during certain time-periods.
Not just limited to the United Kingdom, though, they also travel abroad, going to other exotic locations like Greece, along with Damascus.
Well received from the late fifties into the eighties, she achieved global success with her popularity reaching an all time high during this particular period.
Focusing largely on the romantic suspense genre, she became one of the most prominent writers in her field, a legacy which lives on to this day.
Winning awards as well, she was able to garner the acclaim of not only the critics, but the general public as well.
With commercial and critical success both nationally and internationally, she was a global sensation during her time, achieving popularity far and wide.
As more and more continue to discover her work, she will carry on gaining recognition into the foreseeable future. Originally published in on the 25th of November, this was to be brought out through the HarperTorch publishing label later on.
This was to be the debut of Mary Stewart as an author though, whereby she is introduced to the literary scene for the first time.
English statesmen William Cecil and the Earl of Leicester had worked to obtain Darnley's licence to travel to Scotland from his home in England.
Mary's marriage to a leading Catholic precipitated Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray , to join with other Protestant lords, including Lords Argyll and Glencairn , in open rebellion.
On the 30th, Moray entered Edinburgh but left soon afterward, having failed to take the castle. Mary returned to Edinburgh the following month to raise more troops.
Mary's numbers were boosted by the release and restoration to favour of Lord Huntly's son and the return of James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , from exile in France.
Before long, Darnley grew arrogant. Not content with his position as king consort, he demanded the Crown Matrimonial , which would have made him a co-sovereign of Scotland with the right to keep the Scottish throne for himself, if he outlived his wife.
He was jealous of her friendship with her Catholic private secretary, David Rizzio , who was rumoured to be the father of her child.
They took temporary refuge in Dunbar Castle before returning to Edinburgh on 18 March. However, the murder of Rizzio led inevitably to the breakdown of her marriage.
Immediately after her return to Jedburgh, she suffered a serious illness that included frequent vomiting, loss of sight, loss of speech, convulsions and periods of unconsciousness.
She was thought to be dying. Her recovery from 25 October onwards was credited to the skill of her French physicians.
Potential diagnoses include physical exhaustion and mental stress,  haemorrhage of a gastric ulcer  and porphyria. At Craigmillar Castle , near Edinburgh , at the end of November , Mary and leading nobles held a meeting to discuss the "problem of Darnley".
He remained ill for some weeks. In late January , Mary prompted her husband to return to Edinburgh. He recuperated from his illness in a house belonging to the brother of Sir James Balfour at the former abbey of Kirk o' Field , just within the city wall.
Darnley was found dead in the garden, apparently smothered. I should ill fulfil the office of a faithful cousin or an affectionate friend if I did not Men say that, instead of seizing the murderers, you are looking through your fingers while they escape; that you will not seek revenge on those who have done you so much pleasure, as though the deed would never have taken place had not the doers of it been assured of impunity.
For myself, I beg you to believe that I would not harbour such a thought. By the end of February, Bothwell was generally believed to be guilty of Darnley's assassination.
In the absence of Lennox and with no evidence presented, Bothwell was acquitted after a seven-hour trial on 12 April. Between 21 and 23 April , Mary visited her son at Stirling for the last time.
On her way back to Edinburgh on 24 April, Mary was abducted, willingly or not, by Lord Bothwell and his men and taken to Dunbar Castle , where he may have raped her.
Originally, Mary believed that many nobles supported her marriage, but relations quickly soured between the newly elevated Bothwell created Duke of Orkney and his former peers and the marriage proved to be deeply unpopular.
Catholics considered the marriage unlawful, since they did not recognise Bothwell's divorce or the validity of the Protestant service.
Both Protestants and Catholics were shocked that Mary should marry the man accused of murdering her husband. Twenty-six Scottish peers , known as the confederate lords, turned against Mary and Bothwell and raised their own army.
Mary and Bothwell confronted the lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June, but there was no battle, as Mary's forces dwindled away through desertion during negotiations.
The lords took Mary to Edinburgh, where crowds of spectators denounced her as an adulteress and murderer. He was imprisoned in Denmark, became insane and died in Mary apparently expected Elizabeth to help her regain her throne.
As an anointed queen, Mary refused to acknowledge the power of any court to try her. She refused to attend the inquiry at York personally but sent representatives.
Elizabeth forbade her attendance anyway. He sent copies to Elizabeth, saying that if they were genuine, they might prove Mary's guilt.
The authenticity of the casket letters has been the source of much controversy among historians. It is impossible now to prove either way.
The originals, written in French, were possibly destroyed in by Mary's son. There are incomplete printed transcriptions in English, Scots, French, and Latin from the s.
Moray had sent a messenger in September to Dunbar to get a copy of the proceedings from the town's registers.
Mary's biographers, such as Antonia Fraser , Alison Weir , and John Guy , have come to the conclusion that either the documents were complete forgeries,  or incriminating passages were inserted into genuine letters,  or the letters were written to Bothwell by a different person or written by Mary to a different person.
The casket letters did not appear publicly until the Conference of , although the Scottish privy council had seen them by December The letters were never made public to support her imprisonment and forced abdication.
Historian Jenny Wormald believes this reluctance on the part of the Scots to produce the letters and their destruction in , whatever their content, constitute proof that they contained real evidence against Mary.
Among them was the Duke of Norfolk,  who secretly conspired to marry Mary in the course of the commission, although he denied it when Elizabeth alluded to his marriage plans, saying "he meant never to marry with a person, where he could not be sure of his pillow".
The majority of the commissioners accepted the casket letters as genuine after a study of their contents and comparison of the penmanship with examples of Mary's handwriting.
There was never any intention to proceed judicially; the conference was intended as a political exercise. In the end, Moray returned to Scotland as regent and Mary remained in custody in England.
Elizabeth had succeeded in maintaining a Protestant government in Scotland, without either condemning or releasing her fellow sovereign.
On 26 January , Mary was moved to Tutbury Castle  and placed in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury and his formidable wife Bess of Hardwick.
Mary was permitted her own domestic staff, which never numbered fewer than sixteen. By the s, she had severe rheumatism in her limbs, rendering her lame.
In May , Elizabeth attempted to mediate the restoration of Mary in return for guarantees of the Protestant religion, but convention held at Perth rejected the deal overwhelmingly.
His death coincided with a rebellion in the North of England , led by Catholic earls, which persuaded Elizabeth that Mary was a threat.
English troops intervened in the Scottish civil war, consolidating the power of the anti-Marian forces.
Norfolk was executed and the English Parliament introduced a bill barring Mary from the throne, to which Elizabeth refused to give royal assent.
In , Mary proposed an "association" with her son, James. She announced that she was ready to stay in England, to renounce the Pope's bull of excommunication, and to retire, abandoning her pretensions to the English Crown.
She also offered to join an offensive league against France. For Scotland, she proposed a general amnesty, agreed that James should marry with Elizabeth's knowledge, and accepted that there should be no change in religion.
Her only condition was the immediate alleviation of the conditions of her captivity. James went along with the idea for a while, but eventually rejected it and signed an alliance treaty with Elizabeth, abandoning his mother.
In February , William Parry was convicted of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth, without Mary's knowledge, although her agent Thomas Morgan was implicated.
On 11 August , after being implicated in the Babington Plot , Mary was arrested while out riding and taken to Tixall.
Mary was misled into thinking her letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsingham.
Mary was moved to Fotheringhay Castle in a four-day journey ending on 25 September. In October, she was put on trial for treason under the Act for the Queen's Safety before a court of 36 noblemen,  including Cecil, Shrewsbury, and Walsingham.
She was convicted on 25 October and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zouche , expressing any form of dissent.
She was concerned that the killing of a queen set a discreditable precedent and was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in retaliation, Mary's son, James, formed an alliance with the Catholic powers and invaded England.
Elizabeth asked Paulet, Mary's final custodian, if he would contrive a clandestine way to "shorten the life" of Mary, which he refused to do on the grounds that he would not make "a shipwreck of my conscience, or leave so great a blot on my poor posterity".
At Fotheringhay, on the evening of 7 February , Mary was told she was to be executed the next morning. It was reached by two or three steps, and furnished with the block, a cushion for her to kneel on, and three stools for her and the earls of Shrewsbury and Kent , who were there to witness the execution.
The executioner Bull and his assistant knelt before her and asked forgiveness, as it was typical for the executioner to request the pardon of the one being put to death.
Mary replied, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles. Mary was not beheaded with a single strike.
The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew , which the executioner cut through using the axe.
Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared, "God save the Queen. When the news of the execution reached Elizabeth, she became indignant and asserted that Davison had disobeyed her instructions not to part with the warrant and that the Privy Council had acted without her authority.
He was released nineteen months later, after Cecil and Walsingham interceded on his behalf. Mary's request to be buried in France was refused by Elizabeth.
He was ultimately found with Henry VII. Many of her other descendants, including Elizabeth of Bohemia , Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the children of Anne, Queen of Great Britain , were interred in her vault.
Assessments of Mary in the sixteenth century divided between Protestant reformers such as George Buchanan and John Knox , who vilified her mercilessly, and Catholic apologists such as Adam Blackwood , who praised, defended and eulogised her.
It condemned Buchanan's work as an invention,  and "emphasized Mary's evil fortunes rather than her evil character". Cowan also produced more balanced works.
Historian Jenny Wormald concluded that Mary was a tragic failure, who was unable to cope with the demands placed on her,  but hers was a rare dissenting view in a post-Fraser tradition that Mary was a pawn in the hands of scheming noblemen.
Op 24 juli werd ze gedwongen tot troonsafstand ten voordele van haar eenjarige zoon James en Moray werd regent. Bothwell werd verbannen, werd in Denemarken in de gevangenis opgesloten, werd gek en stierf in Ze verzamelde man en vocht op 13 mei tegen Moray in de Slag bij Langside.
Ze werd verslagen en vluchtte naar het zuiden, overnachtte in Dundrennan Abbey en stak op 16 mei in een vissersboot de Solway Firth over naar Engeland.
Ze landde te Workington in Cumberland en overnachtte in Workington Hall. Op 18 mei namen de autoriteiten haar in hechtenis in Carlisle Castle.
Maria verwachtte hulp van Elizabeth, maar die stelde een onderzoek in of Maria schuld had aan de moord op Darnley. Midden juli werd Maria overgebracht naar Bolton Castle.
Tussen oktober en januari werden conferenties gehouden te York en Westminster. In Schotland vochten haar aanhangers de Marian civil war tegen de regent Moray.
Maria vond de conferentie te York onbevoegd om over haar als koningin te oordelen en bleef afwezig. Later wilde ze zich wel verdedigen op de conferentie van Westminster, maar Elizabeth weigerde toelating.
Moray legde acht brieven in het Frans van Mary aan Bothwell voor als bewijs, samen met twee huwelijkscontracten en enkele sonnetten , gevonden in een met zilver ingelegd kistje, opgesmukt met het monogram van koning Frans II.
Maria stelde dat het om vervalsingen ging. De voorzitter van de conferentie Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk schreef op 11 oktober aan Elizabeth dat ze de schuld van Maria bewezen als ze echt waren.
Moray zond in september een bode naar Dunbar achter een kopie van de echtscheidingsacte van Bothwell.
De conferenties kwamen niet tot schuld of vrijspraak. Moray keerde terug naar Schotland als regent en Maria bleef opgesloten in Engeland. Ze had een luxe huisarrest met een staf van ten minste zestien bedienden en verhuisde regelmatig naar andere kastelen, ook bracht ze zeven zomers door in de thermale badplaats Buxton.
Als katholiek familielid van de protestantse koningin Elizabeth I van Engeland maakte ze echter aanspraak op de Engelse troon. Katholieken vestigden hun hoop op Maria als de in hun ogen rechtmatige erfgename van de troon en de Schotse koningin werd aldus een bedreiging voor Elizabeth.
Maria werd tenslotte opgesloten in het afgelegen kasteel Fotheringhay. In werd haar naam genoemd in de samenzwering van Babington een plan om Elizabeth te vermoorden en te vervangen door Maria.
Zij had op schrift ingestemd met het moordcomplot tegen Elizabeth I; zes edelen moesten de door katholieken als onwettig beschouwde Elizabeth vermoorden en Maria op de troon zetten, zodat het katholieke geloof in Engeland weer hersteld kon worden.
Francis Walsingham ondermijnde het plan en gaf zo Elizabeth een reden om Maria van Schotland te executeren.
Na een proces werd zij ter dood veroordeeld en onthoofd. Toen de beul het afgehakte hoofd aan het volk wilde tonen, hield hij een donkerharige pruik in zijn hand.
Op de grond lag het hoofd met hoofdhaar dat al helemaal grijs was. Het levensverhaal van Maria I van Schotland werd al meermaals verfilmd.
Enkele actrices die haar vertolkten, zijn:. Reign is een Amerikaanse televisieserie van de zender The CW Television Network die van tot werd uitgezonden en gaat over het leven van Mary Stuart.
De Australische Adelaide Kane, van moederskant een afstammelinge van Maria I van Schotland, speelde hierin de hoofdrol.
Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie. Maria I. Media afspelen. Britse koningshuizen. Engeland en Schotland als personele unie.