Massenselbstmord Sekte Jonestown – ein Sektenmassaker schockt die Welt
Als Jonestown-Massaker oder Massensuizid von Jonestown wird die teilweise erzwungene Selbsttötung beziehungsweise Ermordung der Mitglieder von Peoples Temple am November in der von Jim Jones gegründeten Siedlung Jonestown im Nordwesten. Als Jonestown-Massaker oder Massensuizid von Jonestown wird die teilweise erzwungene In seinem Dokumentarfilm Jonestown – Todeswahn einer Sekte aus dem Jahr beschreibt Filmemacher Stanley Nelson die Geschichte von. Für den Massenselbstmord mussten sie Schlange stehen Polizei befürchtet Massenselbstmord einer Sekte. starben Tod im Sektendorf: Diese Bilder aus Jonestown in Südamerika gingen vor 30 Jahren um die Welt. Quelle: AP. Die Ermittlungen ergeben, daß eine fanatische Sektenführerin die Menschen in den Selbstmord geführt und vergiftet hat. April Mindestens.
Jonestown: Massenselbstmord einer Sekte. Season 1. (2) Als Soldaten das abgelegene Dorf Jonestown betreten, zeigt sich ein Bild des Grauens:. Sekten-Anführer Jim Jones kontrolliert das Leben in Jonestown und befiehlt schließlich den Massenselbstmord, bei dem auch er stirbt. Die Ermittlungen ergeben, daß eine fanatische Sektenführerin die Menschen in den Selbstmord geführt und vergiftet hat. April Mindestens.
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Startseite Kontakt. Massensuizid I Simpson Streaming. Sprachlos sei er gewesen, bezeugte John Lennon, als er zum Inhalt 1 massensuizid demmin 2 massenselbstmord 3 massensuizid sekte 4 massensuizid demmin 5 demmin selbstmorde 6 massensuizid sekte.
The name of the settlement became synonymous with the incidents at those locations. In total, individuals died in Jonestown,  all but two from apparent cyanide poisoning, in an event termed "revolutionary suicide" by Jones and some Peoples Temple members on an audio tape of the event, and in prior recorded discussions.
Four other Temple members committed murder-suicide in Georgetown at Jones' command. Terms used to describe the deaths in Jonestown and Georgetown evolved over time.
Many contemporary media accounts after the events called the deaths a mass suicide. Jonestown resulted in the largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until September 11, The Peoples Temple was formed in Indianapolis , Indiana , in After Jones received considerable criticism in Indiana for his integrationist views, the Temple moved to Redwood Valley , California in With the move to San Francisco came increasing political involvement by the Temple and the high levels of approval they received from the local government.
In the fall of , after critical newspaper articles by Lester Kinsolving and the defection of eight Temple members, Jones and Temple attorney Tim Stoen prepared an "immediate action" contingency plan for responding to a police or media crackdown.
The Temple chose Guyana, in part, because of the group's own socialist politics, which were moving further to the left during the selection process.
Jones was skillful in presenting the Guyanese government the benefits of allowing the Peoples Temple Agricultural Project to settle within its borders.
One of the main tactics was to speak of the advantages that their American presence near the Guyanese border of Venezuela.
As members began the construction of Jonestown, the Temple encouraged more to relocate to the settlement. In , Guyanese officials granted the Temple permission to import certain items "duty free".
Jones reached an agreement to guarantee that Guyana would permit Temple members' mass migration. Jonestown was held up as a benevolent communist community, with Jones stating: "I believe we're the purest communists there are.
We are here living communally. The Temple established offices in Georgetown and conducted numerous meetings with Burnham and other Guyanese officials.
Jones bragged about other female Temple members he referred to as "public relations women" giving all for the cause in Jonestown.
Later, Burnham stated that Guyana allowed the Temple to operate in the manner it did on the references of Moscone, Mondale, and Rosalynn Carter.
In the summer of , Jones and several hundred Temple members moved to Jonestown to escape building pressure from San Francisco media investigations.
Many members of the Temple believed that Guyana would be, as Jones promised, a paradise or utopia. Recordings of commune meetings show how livid and frustrated Jones would get when anyone did not find the films interesting or did not understand the message Jones was placing upon them.
Nothing in the way of film or recorded TV shown on the commune's closed-circuit system , no matter how innocuous or seemingly politically neutral, could be viewed without a Temple staffer present to "interpret" the material for the viewers.
This invariably meant damning criticisms of perceived capitalist propaganda in Western material, and glowing praise for and highlighting of Marxist—Leninist messages in material from communist nations.
Jones' recorded readings of the news were part of the constant broadcasts over Jonestown's tower speakers, such that all members could hear them throughout the day and night.
Jonestown's primary means of communication with the outside world was a shortwave radio. Because it stood on poor soil, Jonestown was not self-sufficient and had to import large quantities of commodities such as wheat.
Although Jonestown contained no dedicated prison and no form of capital punishment , various forms of punishment were used against members considered to have serious disciplinary problems.
Children were generally surrendered to communal care, and at times were only allowed to see their biological parents briefly at night.
Jones was called "Father" or "Dad" by both adults and children. Jones made frequent addresses to Temple members regarding Jonestown's safety, including statements that the CIA and other intelligence agencies were conspiring with "capitalist pigs" to destroy the settlement and harm its inhabitants.
Jones was known to regularly study Adolf Hitler and Father Divine to learn how to manipulate members of the cult. Divine told Jones personally to "find an enemy" and "to make sure they know who the enemy is" as it will unify those in the group and make them subservient to him.
On at least two occasions during White Nights, after a "revolutionary suicide" vote was reached, a simulated mass suicide was rehearsed.
Temple defector Deborah Layton described the event in an affidavit :. Everyone, including the children, was told to line up.
As we passed through the line, we were given a small glass of red liquid to drink. We were told that the liquid contained poison and that we would die within 45 minutes.
We all did as we were told. When the time came when we should have dropped dead, Rev. Jones explained that the poison was not real and that we had just been through a loyalty test.
He warned us that the time was not far off when it would become necessary for us to die by our own hands.
The Temple had received monthly half-pound shipments of cyanide since after Jones obtained a jeweler's license to buy the chemical, purportedly to clean gold.
In September , former Temple members Tim and Grace Stoen battled in a Georgetown court to produce an order for the Temple to show cause why a final order should not be issued returning their five-year-old son, John.
During the Siege, Jones spoke to Temple members about attacks from outsiders and had them surround Jonestown with guns and machetes.
The Temple produced memoranda discussing potential places within the U. Although Jones, his executive partners, and congregation voiced their thoughts about moving their operation to the Soviet Union, Jones had a change of heart.
He had stated that he preferred to stay within the Guyanese borders because of the sovereignty it afforded them.
On October 2, , Feodor Timofeyev, a Soviet citizen, visited Jonestown for two days and gave a speech. Meanwhile, in late and early , Tim and Grace Stoen participated in meetings with other relatives of Jonestown residents at the home of Jeannie Mills , another Temple defector.
Together, they called themselves the "Concerned Relatives". Secretary of State and the Guyanese government, and traveled to Washington, D.
On the day after Reiterman's article was published, Harvey Milk — a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors who was supported by the Temple — wrote a letter to President Jimmy Carter defending Jones "as a man of the highest character," and stating that Temple defectors were trying to "damage Rev.
Jones' reputation" with "apparent bold-faced lies". On April 11, , the Concerned Relatives distributed a packet of documents, including letters and affidavits, that they titled an "Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev.
During the summer of , Jones sought the legal services of Mark Lane and Donald Freed , both Kennedy assassination conspiracy theorists , to help make the case of a " grand conspiracy " by U.
Post Office. Jones' health significantly declined in Jonestown. In , Jones was informed of a possible lung infection, upon which he announced to his followers that he in fact had lung cancer — a ploy to foster sympathy and strengthen support within the community.
Jones often mentioned chronic insomnia ; he would often say he went for three or four days without any rest.
During meetings and public addresses, his once-sharp speaking voice often sounded slurred; words ran together or were tripped over.
Jones would occasionally not finish sentences even when reading typed reports over the commune's PA system. Reiterman was surprised by the severe deterioration of Jones' health when he saw him in Jonestown on November 17, Leo Ryan, who represented California's 11th congressional district , announced that he would visit Jonestown.
When the Ryan delegation arrived in Guyana, Lane and Garry initially refused to allow them access to Jonestown. Only Ryan and three others were initially accepted into Jonestown, while the rest of Ryan's group was allowed in after sunset.
Please help us get out of Jonestown. According to Speier in , reading the notes caused her and the congressman to realize that "something was very, very wrong.
Ryan, Speier, Dwyer, and Annibourne stayed the night in Jonestown while other members of the delegation, including the press corps and members of Concerned Relatives, were told that they had to find other accommodations.
In the early morning of November 18, eleven Temple members sensed danger enough to walk out of Jonestown and all the way to the town of Matthew's Ridge , in the opposite direction from the Port Kaituma airstrip.
That afternoon, the Parks and the Bogue families, along with in-laws Christopher O'Neal and Harold Cordell, stepped forward and asked to be escorted out of Jonestown by the Ryan delegation.
After a sudden violent rainstorm started, emotional scenes developed between family members. While most of the Ryan delegation began to depart on a large dump truck to the Port Kaituma airstrip, Ryan and Dwyer stayed behind in Jonestown to process any additional defectors.
Shortly before the dump truck left, Temple loyalist Larry Layton, the brother of Deborah Layton, demanded to join the group.
Several defectors voiced their suspicions about Larry Layton's motives. Shortly after the dump truck initially departed, Temple member Don "Ujara" Sly grabbed Ryan while wielding a knife.
The entourage had originally scheduled a passenger Twin Otter from Guyana Airways to fly them back to Georgetown. Because of the defectors departing Jonestown, the group grew in number and now an additional aircraft was required.
Accordingly, the U. Layton was a passenger on the Cessna, the first aircraft to set up for takeoff. He wounded Bagby and Gosney, and tried to kill Dale Parks, who disarmed him.
Meanwhile, some passengers had boarded the larger Twin Otter. A tractor with a trailer attached, driven by members of the Temple's Red Brigade security squad, arrived at the airstrip and approached the Twin Otter.
Brown was killed along with Robinson, Harris, and Temple defector Patricia Parks in the few minutes of shooting. Ryan was killed after being shot more than twenty times.
After the shootings, the Cessna's pilot, along with the pilot and co-pilot of the Twin Otter, fled in the Cessna to Georgetown.
The damaged Twin Otter and the injured Ryan delegation members were left behind on the airstrip. Before leaving Jonestown for the airstrip, Ryan had told Garry that he would issue a report that would describe Jonestown "in basically good terms".
After Ryan's departure from Jonestown toward Port Kaituma, Marceline Jones made a broadcast on the public address system, stating that everything was all right, and asking residents to return to their homes.
A minute cassette tape, known as the "death tape",   records part of the meeting Jones called inside the pavilion in the early evening of November 18, When the assembly gathered, referring to the Ryan delegation's air travel back to Georgetown, Jones told the gathering:.
One of those people on that plane is gonna shoot the pilot, I know that. I didn't plan it but I know it's gonna happen.
They're gonna shoot that pilot and down comes the plane into the jungle and we had better not have any of our children left when it's over, because they'll parachute in here on us.
Parroting Jones' prior statements that hostile forces would convert captured children to fascism , one Temple member stated: "The ones that they take captured, they're gonna just let them grow up and be dummies.
On the tape, Jones urged Temple members to commit "revolutionary suicide". Temple member Christine Miller argued that the Temple should alternatively attempt an airlift to the Soviet Union.
Jim McElvane, a former therapist who had arrived in Jonestown only two days earlier, assisted Jones by arguing against Miller's resistance to suicide, stating "Let's make it a beautiful day" and later citing possible reincarnation.
After several exchanges in which Jones argued that a Soviet exodus would not be possible, along with reactions by other Temple members hostile to Miller, she backed down.
However, Miller may have ceased dissenting when Jones confirmed at one point that "the Congressman has been murdered" after the airstrip shooters returned.
When the Red Brigade members came back to Jonestown after Ryan's murder, Tim Carter, a Vietnam War veteran, recalled them having the " thousand-yard stare " of weary soldiers.
By this point, armed guards had taken up positions surrounding the pavilion area. Directly after this, Jones stated that "the Red Brigade's the only one that made any sense anyway," and, "the Red Brigade showed them justice.
According to escaped Temple member Odell Rhodes, the first to take the poison were Ruletta Paul and her one-year-old infant.
A syringe without a needle fitted was used to squirt poison into the infant's mouth, after which Paul squirted another syringe into her own mouth.
Clayton said that Jones approached people to encourage them to drink the poison and that, after adults saw the poison begin to take effect, "they showed a reluctance to die.
The poison caused death within five minutes for children,   less for babies, and an estimated 20—30 minutes for adults.
It is not clear if some initially thought the exercise was another White Night rehearsal. Rhodes reported being in close contact with dying children.
In response to reactions of seeing the poison take effect on others, Jones counseled, "Die with a degree of dignity. Lay down your life with dignity; don't lay down with tears and agony.
I tell you, I don't care how many screams you hear, I don't care how many anguished cries Rhodes described a scene of both hysteria and confusion as parents watched their children die from the poison.
He also stated that most present "quietly waited their own turn to die", and that many of the assembled Temple members "walked around like they were in a trance".
This crowd was surrounded by armed guards, offering members the basic dilemma of death by poison or death by a guard's hand. Jones was found dead lying next to his chair in the pavilion between two other bodies, his head cushioned by a pillow.
The events at Jonestown constituted the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the incidents of September 11, Three high-ranking Temple survivors claimed they were given an assignment and thereby escaped death.
Dear Comrade Timofeyev, The following is a letter of instructions regarding all of our assets that we want to leave to the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Enclosed in this letter are letters which instruct the banks to send the cashiers checks to you. I am doing this on behalf of Peoples Temple because we, as communists, want our money to be of benefit for help to oppressed peoples all over the world, or in any way that your decision-making body sees fit.
At this point, Carter had a nervous breakdown , and was pulled away from the village by his equally distraught brother.
Just before the start of the final meeting in the pavilion, Garry and Lane were told that the people were angry with them.
The lawyers were escorted to a house used to accommodate visitors. According to them, they talked their way past two armed guards and made it to the jungle, before eventually arriving in Port Kaituma.
While in the jungle near the settlement, they heard gunshots. Four more people who were intended to be poisoned managed to survive.
The only medical doctor to initially examine the scene at Jonestown was Mootoo, who visually examined over bodies and later told a Guyanese coroner's jury to have seen needle marks on at least However, no determination was made as to whether those injections initiated the introduction of poison or whether they were so-called "relief" injections to quicken death and reduce suffering from convulsions from those who had previously taken poison orally.
Mootoo and American pathologist Lynn Crook determined that cyanide was present in some bodies, while analysis of the contents of the vat revealed several tranquilizers as well as potassium cyanide and potassium chloride.
Plastic cups, Flavor Aid packets, and syringes, some with needles and some without, littered the area where the bodies were found.
Mootoo concluded that a gunshot wound to Annie Moore could not have been self-inflicted, though Moore had also ingested a lethal dose of cyanide.
Guyanese authorities waived their requirement for autopsies in the case of unnatural death. Doctors in the U. Moore and Layton were selected among those autopsied, in part, because of the urging of the Moore family, including Rebecca Moore, the sister of the two victims, who was not a Temple member herself.
Found near Marceline Jones' body was a typewritten note, dated November 18, , signed by Marceline and witnessed by Moore and Maria Katsaris, stating:.
Please be sure that these assets do get to the USSR. I especially request that none of these are allowed to get into the hands of my adopted daughter, Suzanne Jones Cartmell.
For anyone who finds this letter, please honor this request as it is most important to myself and my husband James W.
Moore also left a note, which in part stated: "I am at a point right now so embittered against the world that I don't know why I am writing this.
Someone who finds it will believe I am crazy or believe in the barbed wire that does NOT exist in Jonestown. No other specific reference is made to the events of the day.
The children loved it. So did everyone else. Found near Carolyn Layton's body was a handwritten note signed by Layton, witnessed by Katsaris and Moore, dated November 18, , stating, "This is my last will and testament.
I hereby leave all assets in any bank account to which I am a signatory to the Communist Party of the U. In the early evening of November 18, at the Temple's headquarters in Georgetown, Temple member Sharon Amos received a radio communication from Jonestown instructing the members at the headquarters to take revenge on the Temple's enemies and then commit revolutionary suicide.
At the airstrip, Reiterman photographed the aftermath of the shootings. A Guyanese government plane arrived the following morning to evacuate the wounded.
Guyanese soldiers eventually found them. Rhodes, Clayton, Garry, and Lane were also brought to Georgetown. Prokes died by suicide on March 14, during a press conference, four months after the Jonestown incident.
Nine hundred and twelve of the dead, including Jones himself, were collected by the United States military in Guyana, then transported by military cargo plane to Dover Air Force Base in Delaware, a location that had been used previously for mass processing of the dead from the Tenerife airport disaster.
The base's mortuary was tasked with fingerprinting, identifying, and processing the bodies. In August , the never-claimed cremated remains of 9 people from Jonestown were found in a former funeral home in Dover.
Those five were publicly identified in the hope that family would claim their remains. Larry Layton, who had fired a gun at several people aboard the Cessna, was initially found not guilty of attempted murder in a Guyanese court, employing the defense that he was "brainwashed".
Layton could not be tried in the U.